Chemical Wastes of factories:
The chemical substance generated as a by-product during the preparation of product known as chemical waste product. The chemical wastes include heavy metal and their ions, detergents, acids and alkali’s and various other toxic substances. Usually produced by the industries like fertilizer factories, paper and pulp industries, iron and steel industries, distilleries, sugar mills etc. Liberated into nearby water bodies like rivers, lakes and seas and sometimes into lands. The entry of these chemicals into bodies may alter the pH, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand).
The loading of suspended solids (ss), heavy metals and their ions brings about a drastic change in physiochemical nature of the water. The aquatic animals and plants absorb, accumulate and Bio-concentrate the chemical wastes leading to Bio magnifications and finally destroying the trophic levels and food chains of the eco-system. Hence these disturb the eco-system dynamics and eco-system balance of the nature.
The waste generated in an industry during washing and processing of raw materials known as process waste. The process waste may be organic or inorganic in nature depending upon the raw materials used and nature of the industry.
The organic process wastes liberated from food processing units, distilleries, breweries, paper and pulp industry, sugar mills etc. The inorganic process wastes may be the effluents of chemical industries; caustic soda industry, paint industry, petroleum industry, pesticide industry etc. Both organic and inorganic process wastes are toxic to living organisms. The solid wastes released by different industries can be divided in to two different groups are Process wastes and Packing wastes. Since different industries use different raw materials, the quality and quantity of solid wastes differ from industry to industry.
Industries releasing the solid wastes in the form of fly ash are dumped on the ground which leads to soil pollution. Some amount of fly ash also contaminate atmospheric tract causing respiratory tract disorders. Metallic industries produce a lot of solid metallic waste and large quantities of slag. In addition to the release of hazardous chemical pollutants, the industries may also cause thermal pollution and noise pollution. The thermal pollution is due to release of hot water from industries into aquatic bodies. The noise pollution is due to running of heavy machinery producing a lot of noise.