The handling of toxic chemicals in Industries
(Gases which reduce oxygen contents of air being breathed, by physical displacement or chemical reaction with hemoglobin(C),C02,N2,Argon, Bombay High Gas, Acetylene, Hydrogen, etc.
(Gases causing severe inflammation of respiratory tract and impairing the function of lungs). Ammonia, NO, N02,s02,S03, Chlorine and other halogens, etc.
Central Nervous System and other Systematic Poisons:
Methanol (optic Nerves Petroleum Hydrocarbons (Naphtha, Gasoline-narcotic effect) Aniline and Benzene (Narcotic Anesthetic effect, Anomie of blood, general weakness, effect on liver kidney, cardiac system etc.) Lead and mercury are also systemic poisons. Mercury is also a protoplasmic poison, causes disorder of gums and tether.
Acids, Alkalis, Ammonia, Liquid, Carbonate Solution, Caustic Solutions, Ammines.
Dusts of Asbestos, Silica, Coal, Cotton, Iron, Lead, Sugar Cane Hay- cause lungs diseases like Asbestosis, Silicosis, Pneumoconiosis, Weavers Cough etc.
Skin Poisons by toxic chemicals:
Those causing dermatitis and ulcers to skin e.g. Chromates, Naphtha, Ammines, Aniline, Cutting Oil.
Unsafe conduct while handling a chemical, such as smoking, operating of ordinary type, bypassing, bonding and earthling connections, disregard for cylinder caps. leaving leaks/spills undiluted or unattended, failure to caution others during draining depressurizing, venting .operations, or during movement of handling vehicles. making improvisation or temporary arrangements etc.
How to handle Certain hazardous/toxic chemicals?
Simple asphyxiate, explosive and fire A DANGER hazard, LEL 2.5%DEL 80%, Flash Point O°F, Ignition HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS point 571°F, keep away from copper and silver as with them if forms explosive compound, vapour-pressure is very high i.e. 40 Atm. At 16.50% do not allow the cylinder of this gas to be heated up.
Present as gas as well as liquid in compressed state. Highly irritant to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Causes burns, fir hazards, X LEL 16% UEL 25%, Flash point less than O°F, Ignition Temperature 12040F. Highly soluble in water and water is used as dilution medium on leaks of ammonia as well as on bums. Keep away from mixing with halogens, mercury, and hydrofluoric acid. Ammonia is also having high vapour pressure i.e, 10 Atm.f25.700C.TL VO Ammonia is 25 ppm.
Affects blood cells and causes blood anemia. Affects cardiac system and central nervous system. Also affects liver and causes jaundice, cause of urinary disorder. Fire hazard. LEL1.3%, Flashpoint 158) F and Ignition point 14180F, TL V 5 ppm.
TL V 25 ppm, irritant to skin and eyes, hazard for blood forming tissues, blood cells, affects central nervous system, anesthetic action – excitement depression-death. Fire Hazard, LEL 1.3%, VEL7.1 %, Flash Point 12°F, Ignition Point 1044°F.
Associated Gas (Bombay High Gas):
Highly flammable gas. It is a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons and contain almost 95% of Methane. It is simple as phyalant gas Lel 1.5% and UEL 14%, Ignition Temp.995°F.
Ammonia Nitrate (NH4N03):
Ingredient of complex fertilizer. Because of self oxygen and evolution of toxic fumes of oxides of nitrogen, this chemical poses special fire fighting problem. I between 350°F and 390°F the decomposition of this chemical takes place which is an exothermic reaction, Confinement and high temperature is considered’ to, be disastrous situation Decomposition temperature is lowered down in presence of organic and oxidizing impurities. No problem as’ long as in liquid state’ and atmospheric pressure,
Carbon monoxide (co):
It is considered to be a deadly poisonous gas in industries. CO has no odour and no colour and therefore likely to be inhaled in considerable amount before actual effect is noticed. It cuts off the oxygen supply to body by destroying the haemoglobin in the blood, which works as a vehicle for oxygen from lungs to all other parts of body. Head-ache, nauseas, godliness are the preliminary sings and difficulty in breathing, fall in body temperature, unconsciousness/coma and death are the results of inhalation of large amount of CO, Concentrations of 500 ppm can be dangerous after short exposure. It is also a flammable gas. ‘LEL 1-5% and VEL 74.2%. Ignition temperature 1280F.TLV is 50 ppm.