Health environment facilities in Factories

By | May 31, 2021

Health environment facilities in Factories:

Ventilation and Temperature:

The every factory shall make effective and suitable provision for securing and maintaining in every workroom. Adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air and such a temperature as will secure to workers reasonable conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health.

Power of the Government on Health environment facilities:

The State Government has been empowered to prescribe a standard of adequate ventilation and reasonable temperature for any factory or class of factories. It may direct that proper measuring instruments at such places and in such position as may be specified & shall be provided and such records shall be maintained.Health environment facilities in Factories

Measures to reduce excessively high temperature:

In order to prevent excessively high temperature following measures shall be adopted: Walls and roofs shall be of such material and so designed that such temperature shall not be exceeded but kept as low as practicable. Where the nature of the work carried on in the factory generates excessively high temperatures, such adequate measures as are practicable shall be taken to protect the workers

  • By separating the process which produces such temperatures from the workroom, or
  • By insulating the hot parts.

Dust and Fume:

There are certain manufacturing processes like jute, textiles, cement etc. which generate a lot of dust, fume or other measures should be taken in this following measure should be taken in this respect:

  • Effective measures shall be taken to prevent its inhalation and accumulation in any workroom.
  • Wherever necessary, exhaust appliances shall be applied, as near as possible to the point of origin of dust, fume or other impurity. Such point shall be enclosed as far as possible.
  • Where stationary internal combustion engine is operated, the exhaust fan should be conducted into the open air.
  • In cases other internal combustion engine is operated in a room, effective measure should be taken to prevent such accumulation of frames there from.

Artificial Humidification in Health environment facilities:

Humidification means the presence of moisture in the air. In certain factories like textile factories, higher degree of humidification required for carrying out the manufacturing process. If it not increased to the level required, it may adversely affect the health of workers. Section 15 provides following provisions in this respect:

Power of State Government to make rules for artificial humidity:- In respect of ail factories in which the humidity of the air artificially increased, the State Government may make rules:

  • prescribing standards of humidification;
  • regulating the methods used for artificially increasing the humidity of the air:
  • directing prescribed tests for determining the humidity of the air to be correctly carried out and recorded;
  • Prescribing methods to adopted for securing adequate ventilation and cooling of the air in the workrooms.

Water used to purified in any factory in which the humidity of the air artificially increased the water used for the purpose shall taken from a public supply, or other source of drinking water, or shall effectively purified before it used.

Power of Inspector:

If it appears to an Inspector that the water not effectively purified, he serve on the manager of the factory an order in writing, specifying the measures which in opinion should adopted, and requiring them to carried out before specified date.


Overcrowding in the workroom adversely affects the health of the workers. Section 16 makes provisions with a view to provide sufficient air space to the workers in the workroom. They are under:

No room to overcrowded: No room in any factory shall overcrowded to an extent injurious to the health of the workers.

Minimum work space: There shall in every workroom of a factory (in existence on the date of the commencement o this Act at least 9.9 cubic meters and at least 14.2 cubic meters for a factory built after the commencement of this Act of space for every worker employed for the purposes of this no account shall taken of any space, more than meters above the level of the floor of the room.

Posting of notice: If the Chief Inspector by order in writing so requires, there shall posted in each workroom of a factory a notice specifying the maximum number of workers who may employed in the room.Health environment facilities in Factories


The Chief Inspector may by order in writing exempt (subject to such conditions, if any as he may think fit to impose) any workroom from the provisions of this Section, if he satisfied that compliance therewith in respect of the room unnecessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein.

Lighting in Health environment facilities:

Section 17 makes following provisions with regard to the lighting in the workrooms:

Sufficient and suitable lightings: In every part of a factory where workers are working or passing there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, or both.

Glazed windows and skylights to kept cleaned: All glazed windows and- skylights used for the lighting of the workrooms shall kept clean on both the inner and outer surfaces.

Measures for prevention of glare and formation of shadows: Effective provision shall made for the prevention of: Glare, either directly from a source of light or by reflection from a smooth or polished surface, and The formation of shadows to such an extent as to cause eye-strain or the risk of accident to any worker.

Power of the Government: The State Government may prescribe, standards of sufficient and suitable light for factories or for any manufacturing process.

Drinking Water in Health environment facilities:

Section 18 makes following provisions with regard to the supply of wholesome drinking water in the factories:

Effective arrangements for drinking water: In every factory effective arrangements shall made to provide and maintain at suitable points for sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water for all the workers in the factory.

Marking of drinking points: All points for supply of water shall be legibly marked “drinking water” in a language understood by a majority of the workers employed in the factory.

Location of drinking points: No point of drinking water shall situated within six meters of any washing place, urinal, latrine, spittoon, open drain carrying silage or effluent or any other source of contamination unless a shorter distance approved in writing by the Chief Inspector.

Provision for cooling water: In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers ordinarily employed; provision shall made for cooling drinking water; during hot weather, and for distribution thereof.

Power of the Government: In respect of all factories or any class or description of factories; the State Government may make rules for securing compliance, with the above provisions. The State Government may also make rules for the examination by prescribed authorities; of the supply and distribution of drinking water in factories.

Latrines and Urinals:

Arrangement for latrines and urinals In every factory following arrangements shall made like as:

  • Every factory shall make provision for sufficient number of latrines and urinals of the prescribed standard.
  • These shall conveniently situated and accessible to workers at all times during working hours.
  • Separate enclosed accommodation shall be provided for male and female workers.
  • Such accommodation shall adequately lighted and ventilated.
  • No latrine or urinal shall (unless specially exempted in writing by the Chief Inspector) communicate with any workroom except through an intervening open space or ventilated passage.
  • All such accommodation shall maintained in a clean and sanitary condition at all times.
  • Sweepers shall employed whose primary duty would to keep clean latrines, urinals and washing places.
  • Arrangement where 250 workers employed. In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers ordinarily employed; following types of arrangements shall made:
  • All latrine and urinal accommodation shall be of prescribed sanitary types.
  • The floors and internal walls up to a height of ninety centimeters of the latrines and urinals. And the sanitary blocks shall laid in glazed tiles or otherwise finished; to provide a smooth polished impervious surface.
  • The floors, portions of the walls and blocks so laid or finished and the sanitary pans of latrines and urinals shall thoroughly washed and
  • Cleaned at least once in every seven days with suitable detergents or disinfectants or with both.

Power of the Government on Health environment facilities:

The State Government may prescribe the number of latrines and urinals to be provided in any factory; in proportion to the number of male and female workers; ordinarily employed therein. It may also provide for such further matters in respect of sanitation in factories; including the obligation of workers in this regard; as it considers necessary in the interest of the health of the workers.


The following provision with regard to the spittoons: In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons in convenient places.

  • They shall maintained in a clean and hygienic condition.
  • No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the spittoons provided for the purpose. A notice containing this provision and the penalty for its violation shall prominently displayed at suitable places in the premises.,
  • Whoever spits elsewhere than in the spittoons shall be punishable with fine not exceeding five rupees.

Power of the Government:

The State Government may make rules prescribing the type and the number of spittoons to be provided and their location in any factory. It may also provide for such further matters relating to their maintenance in a clean and hygienic condition.

Powers of Chief Inspector:

If it appears to the Chief Inspector that excessively high temperatures; in any factory can reduced by the adoption of suitable measures. He may, without prejudice to any rules made serve on the occupier; an order in writing specifying the measures which, in his opinion; should adopted and requiring them to carried out before a specified date.

Key Concepts and Terms for Health environment facilities:

The Factories Act contains provisions regarding health of workers in factories. They include the provisions for

  • Cleanliness,
  • Disposal of waste and effluents.
  • Ventilation and temperature.
  • Dust and fume.
  • Artificial humidification.
  • Overcrowding.
  • Lighting.
  • Drinking water.
  • Latrines and urinals.
  • Spittoons.

The State Government also has power to make rule with regard to these provisions.

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