Human Factors in Design of Machine and Work:-
Human Factors in Design of Machine and Work: Technology has changed the people’s ways of working but the people have not changed much Many times the people do net adapt physically and mentally, a tendency of modern methods This generates negative reactions which also indicate human factors to be considered while designing work methods. This generates negative reactions which also indicated human factors to be considered while designing work and machines.
Some such factors are-
- Increased stress.
- Uninterested work.
- Awkward body position causing difficulty.
- Repetitive tasks producing boredom and tiredness.
- Confusing signals causing human errors in hurry.
- Bent or awkward posture while handling heavy materials and causing back pain.
- Perceptual limitation, Incompatibility in man-machine relationship.
- Risk or chance taking.
- Position or location not suitable to a worker such as unsuitable work height, seat, layout of control and display.
- Organization of heavy work.
Design of Machine and Work
As a science ergonomics studies anatomy, physiology and psychology. Anatomy includes anthropometry and bio mechanics. Anthropometric, the measurement of man provides the dimensional data needed for the positioning of controls and the size of work spaces, Stature (height up to head), eye height, shoulder height, elbow height, knuckle height (up to the palm of hanging hand). Sitting height, shoulder width, breadth across elbows, upward reach side way reach, forward reach, hand length, hand breadth etc., are main human dimensions as stated by W. T. Singleton. Bio mechanics is concerned with the application of forces by the human body. This requires knowledge of the locations of the main muscle groups, their composition and their modes of action. Human Factors in Design of Machine and Work.
Physiomuscle groups, their composition and their modes of action. Physiology includes work physiology & environmental physiology Work physiology in concerned with the human process of energy production & considers human efficiency, oxygen uptake capacity, etc. Environmental physiology provides measures of the stress and standards of reasonable parameters of climate” light, noise, vibration etc. Their effects on human behavior are studied. Psychology considers various factors described and also some theories such as human performance theory based on an information model of the human operator, learning and skill theory for training and organization theory for work and system designs. Such psychological theories say about human error-why people make mistakes. Many times guards, controls and protective equipment’s are provided but operators’ fail to use them.
Safe Job Methods:
Designing of safe machine guarding is not sufficient. For all-round efforts of eliminating accident safe job methods are equally important. They include,
- Various safety appraisal, analysis and control techniques.
- Plant safety inspection techniques and Accident investigation and analysis methods.
- As such 45 methods and their related, aspects an already described in Chapte-6 they are not repeated here.
- Constant improvement in job methods is important.
- Break down the job Question every detail of the job.
- Develop a new job method and Apply the method. The procedure includes
- Eliminating certain job details by using alternative methods
- Combining some details to reduce hazards and unnecessary transportation, handling, delay etc
- Rearranging certain details into better sequence to reduce hazards, handling, delay etc, and
- Simplifying certain details so as to make the work safer and easier.