ON-SITE emergency plan for Safety in Industries
ON-SITE emergency plan requires the following activities:
- Emergency organization
- Plant risk evaluation
- Medical facilities
- Emergency equipment and facilities
- Conveyance systems
- Notification and communication systems
- Safety training
- Drills and exercises
- Testing and evaluation of the emergency plan
On-site emergency plan involves the following activities:
The first and foremost requirement of on-site emergency plan is to setup an emergency organization. This involves-
- Selecting Person in Charge and Alternates
- Specifying The Functions Of Each Key Individual And Group.
- Maintaining Telephone Numbers (Office and’ Home) of Key people Alternates.
Risk evaluation is the systematic evaluation of the risk involved should there be an emergency. The evaluation involves analysis of-
- Properties of each (MSDS sheets) hazardous materials
- Handling requirements of materials
- Special fire fighting procedures (if any)
- Details of hazardous materials
- Quantity of hazardous materials
- Location of hazardous materials
The firm must have access to clinic hospital served by a full lime nurse and doctor. Medical Facilities with the organization must be appropriate for routine visits and first aid. It must be equipped to deal with, the most likely medical emergencies at the location. Beds, stretchers, oxygen and other medical equipment’s are the usual requirements.
Each member of the rescue team should be trained in first aid practices. Serious injuries may be treated at the nearby hospital. The organization may also need to ensure full time availability of an ambulance or at least a suitable vehicle that can be adapted for the transportation of injured persons, if need.
The list of nearby hospitals, number of bed available at each hospital, telephone number etc. should be displayed in the emergency center at a prominent location.
Emergency equipment and facilities (ON-SITE emergency plan):
Emergency, equipment and facilities imply equipment and material that may be’ required to. protect the lives of the fire fighters, to implement other important rescue and Equipments which can be used; against fight the Emergency. This equipment is transported to the scene of. accident using whatever means available.
Such typical equipment may include:
- Fire fighting equipment
- Emergency medical supplies
- Self-contained breathing apparatus
- Goggles, boots, rubber gloves, helmets
- Other personal protective equipment’s
More specific equipment, such’ as mobile generators, floodlights and supply units could be made available if necessary.
During an emergency, supplies and equipment may require to transported to the scene of the accident. Some of the materials may transported on special emergency vehicles while additional equipment’s may transported using vans and other vehicles typically used during normal plant operation. Upon the declaration of an emergency, these vehicles may made available for emergency operations.
Notification and Communication procedures:
Notification and communication element of emergency planning deals with the equipment and methods, and procedures required for effective communication during the emergency. In particular, communication and notification procedures may be necessary for:
- Raising the alarm
- Making the emergency known within the establishment
- Notifying external agencies, wherever required
- Establishing and maintaining communication among the different functions within the response organization at the facility, including the Emergency Control Centre.
- Making the emergency known outside the facility.
The initial communication procedures may be especially. Important since they determine how soon the Disaster Management Plan can be activated, Initial notification is also essential because of the responsibility attached to it arid because it provides early mobilization of outside resources.
The following need to be looked into:-
- Alarm systems
- Communication equipments (e.g. radio, hotlines etc.,)
- Emergency organization (plant management, local officials and response agency, nearby residents)
- Names and telephone numbers (with alternates list).
- Designated person for media contacts.
- Procedure for notifying the families of the injured employees.
- Emergency control center.
Drills and exercises in ON-SITE emergency plan-
Drills and exercises constitute the second basic component of disaster management. T hey both refer to a re-enactment, under the assumption of a mock scenario, of the implementation of the response actions to be taken during an emergency. Drills are more limited aspect of the whole response capability (e.g. a fire drill). Exercises are more comprehensive and are aimed at testing the whole response organization, including communication with and the intervention of, off-site response personnel.
- Provide hands-on experience with the procedures to be implemented during an emergency.
- Test the validity of the plan and procedures
- Familiarize the response personnel with the equipment, methodologies and approaches to controlling an emergency
- Maintain disaster management.
The attainment of such objectives requires a great deal of effort on the part of the team in-charge of organizing the drills and exercises. A number of steps are involved in the preparation work. These steps include the identification of:
- The specific objectives of the drill or exercise
- The emergency scenario under which the drill or exercise could be conducted.
- The date, time, duration and location of the exercise.
- The response teams Involved.
- The controllers, evaluators, visitors and observers.
- The methodology and material for evaluation.
Testing and evaluating an Emergency Plan-
Testing and evaluation is an integral part of emergency preparedness. Its main objectives are to
- Assess of effectiveness of the plan and its response
- Establish criteria for corrective and preventive actions
- Test knowledge and skill of participating personnel
- Identify training needs of response personnel
- Test the communication network and co-operative response skills
OFF-SITE emergency plan require attention to the following activities:
Off-site emergency plan involve the following activities:
- Emergency actions
- Communication with authorities concerned
- Evacuation sheltering plan.
Emergency Actions consisting of Raising the alarm-
Raising the alarm is the first step in the implementation of Disaster Management Plan. It is the practice at many establishments that any employee can raise the alarm (especially in case of fire), or at least alert someone who can then raise the alarm. The procedure has me advantage or permitting’ me earliest possible warning.
Making the emergency known within the establishment-
The raising of the alarm has two purposes:
- to mobilize the disaster management personnel and
- to advise the non-essential personnel and on-site visitors and contractors about the protective actions to taken (e.g. move to safe assembly point, take shelter or evacuate the facility).
Communication with authorities-
Certain emergencies such as fire, explosion, toxic gas release, handling and transportation o chemicals, require immediate contact with following authorities:
- Local authorities such as district collector, municipal collector
- Police authority such as commissioner of police
- Fire Brigade authority i.e.,
- Fire Brigade station.
- Medical authority such as civil hospital, ESIS hospital, Zillah Paris had Health Office, Blood bank etc.
- Technical authority such as Director of. Industrial Safety and Health, Pollution Control Board (PCB), Regional Transport Officer (RTO)
Evacuation/Sheltering ON-SITE emergency plan-
In a situation where the general public could affected by the accident, two possible courses of action could taken: evacuation or sheltering. Whichever action decided upon, the public must informed of it. This can be quite a challenging task to the point of becoming nearly impossible if an effective communication procedure is not already in place. In addition, such an alarm system can only be effective if the public is already aware or what actions to take it the alarm is sounded.
The content of the messages should as brief and clear as possible, and provide information on the action to taken. In addition, the public should asked to refrain from using the telephone (to minimize the potential for line overload) and to notify neighbors of the emergency (again, without using the phone). Should evacuation recommended, the messages should inform the public of where the designated relocation areas and which evacuation routes to follow?
The authority to enforce these actions to protect the public, in general, assigned to local or state officials. However, the Main controller at the Emergency Control Centre should have developed guidelines (based on the hazard analysis) as to when to recommend public evacuation versus sheltering prepared for such a course of actions.