Pressure Plant

The following measures shall be taken for safe working of the pressure plant:

Measures to ensure safe working pressure:-

If in any factory, any plant or machinery or any part thereof is operated at a pressure above atmospheric pressure, effective measures shall be taken to ensure that the safe working pressure of such plant or machinery or part is not exceeded.

Power to make rules for Pressure Plant

The State Government may make rules providing for the examination and testing of any pressure plant or machinery. It may also prescribe such other safety measures in relation thereto as may in its opinion be necessary in any factory or class or description of factories.

Power to exempt:-

The State Government may, by rules, exempt, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, any part of any plant or machinery from the provisions of this Section.

Floors, Stairs and Means of Access:

to ensure safety with regards to floors, stairs etc.

These provisions are as under:Pressure Plant

Quality and maintenance:- In every factory all floors, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be of sound construction and properly maintained and shall be kept free from obstructions and substances likely to cause persons to slip. Where it is necessary to ensure safety, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be provided with substantial handrails.

Safe means of access:- There shall, so far as is reasonably practicable, be provided and maintained safe means of access to every place at which any person is at any time required to work.

Safety of person working at height:- When any person has to work at a height from where he is likely to fall, provision shall be made, so far as is reasonably practicable, by fencing or otherwise, to ensure the safety of the person so working.

Pits, Sumps, Openings in Floors etc.: Section 33 provides for covering or fencing of pits, sumps etc. as under:

Pits, sumps etc. to be covered or fenced: In every factory every fixed vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening in the ground or in a floor which is or may be a source of danger, shall be either securely covered or securely fenced.

Exemption:

The State Government may, by order in writing, exempt, {subject to such conditions as may be prescribed) any factory or factories in respect of any vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening from compliance with the provisions of this Section.

Excessive Weights: the following provisions for safeguarding workers from excessive weights:

Not to carry or lift excessive weights:- No person shall be employed in any factory to lift, carry or move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause him injury.

Power of the Government for Pressure Plant:-

The State Government may make rules prescribing the maximum weights which may be lifted, carried or moved by adult men, adult women, adolescents and children employed in factories or in carrying on any specified process.

Protection of Eye: Section 35 empowers the State Government to make rules and require for providing effective screens or suitable goggles for the protection of persons employed on or in vicinity of any such manufacturing process which involves the following kind of risks: Risk of injury to the eyes from particles or fragments thrown off in the course of the process. Risk to the eyes by reason of exposure to excessive light.

Precautions against Dangerous Fumes, Gases etc.:

The following precautionary provisions against dangerous fumes, gases etc.:Pressure Plant

Restriction on entry into chamber, tank etc. where any gas likely to present: No person shall required or allowed to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space in any factory in which any gas, fume, vapor or dust likely to be present to such an extent as to involve risk to persons being overcome thereby, unless it provided with a manhole of adequate size or other effective means of egress.

Entry only after measures have taken to remove the gas etc.: No person shall required or allowed to enter any confined space as referred above until practicable measures have taken to remove any gas, fume, vapor or dust, so as to bring its level within the permissible limits and to prevent any ingress of such gas, fume, vapor or dust. Moreover, any person shall allowed or required to enter into such space only if the following conditions satisfied:

A certificate in writing has given by a competent person, that the space reasonably free from dangerous gas, fume, vapor or dust. Such person wearing suitable breathing apparatus and a belt securely attached to a rope the free end of which held by a person outside the confined space.

Precautions Regarding Use of Portable Lights:

No electric light exceeding 24 volts can be used: In any factory no portable electric light or any other electric appliance of voltage exceeding twenty-four volts shall be permitted for use inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space unless adequate safety devices are provided.

Only lights with flame-proof construction in certain cases: If any inflammable gas, fume or dust is likely to be present in any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space, no lamp or light’ other than that flame-proof construction shall be permitted to be used therein.

Precautions against Explosive or Inflammable Dust, Gas etc.: Section 37of factories act contains following precautions against explosive or inflammable dust, gas etc. in a manufacturing process:

Measures to prevent explosion on ignition of gas etc.:- Wherein any factory any manufacturing process produces dust, gas, fume or vapor of such character and to such extent as to be likely to explode on ignition, all practicable measures shall be taken to prevent any such explosion by:

Effective enclosure of the plant or machinery used in the process; Removal or prevention of the accumulation of such dust, gas, fume or vapor; and ‘Exclusion or effective enclosure of all possible sources of ignition.

Provision of chokes, baffles etc.: If the plant or machinery is not so constructed as to withstand the probable pressure of an “explosion, all practicable measures shall be taken to restrict the spread and effects of the explosion by the provision in the plant or machinery of chokes, baffles, vents or other effective appliances.

Measures when pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure of Pressure Plant:

Where any part of the plant or machinery in a factory contains any explosive or inflammable gas or vapor under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, that part shall not opened unless the following measures taken:

Any flow of the gas or vapor into the part of any connected pipe shall effectively stopped by a stop-valve or other means.

All practicable measures shall taken to reduce the pressure of the gas or vapor in the pipe to the atmospheric pressure.

Where any fastening of any joint has loosened or removed, effective measures shall taken or prevent any explosive or inflammable gas or vapor from entering the part of pipe until the fastening has secured, or securely replaced.

The above provisions shall not apply in the case of plant or machinery installed in the open air Furthermore, no plant, tank or vessel which contains or has contained any. explosive or Inflammable substance shall be subjected in any factory to any welding, brazing, soldering or cutting operation which involves the application of heat unless adequate measures, have first been taken to remove such substance and any fumes arising there from or to render such substance and fumes non-explosive or non-inflammable,

Exemption: The State Government may by rules exempt (subject to such conditions as may be prescribed) any factory or factories from compliance with all or any of the provisions of this Section.

Precautions in case of Fire in Pressure Plant:

The following provisions regarding precautions in case of fire-

Measures to prevent outbreak of fire:- In every factory, all practicable measures shall taken to prevent outbreak of fire and its spread, both internally and externally. Further, measures shall taken to provide and maintain the following:

Safe means of escape for all persons in the event of afire.

The necessary equipment and facilities fur extinguishing fire.

Ensuring familiarity with means of escape:- In every factory, effective measures shall taken to ensure that all the workers familiar with the means of escape in case of fire and have adequately trained in the routine to followed in such cases.

Rules by the Government for Pressure Plant:-

The State Government may make rules; in respect of any factory or factories; requiring the measures to adopted to give effect to the above provisions.

Power of the Chief Inspector:- If the Chief Inspector; having regard to the nature of the work carried on in any factory; the construction of such factory; special risk to life or safety, or any other circumstances; is of the opinion that the measures provided it) the factory; are inadequate, he may, by order in writing; require that such additional measures as he may consider reasonable and necessary; provided in the factory before such date as specified in the order.

Requiring Specifications of Defective Parts or Tests of Stability: If it appears to the Inspector that any building; or part of a building or any part of the ways; machinery or plant in a factory may be dangerous to human life or safety; he may serve 011 the occupier or manager or both of the factory; an order in writing requiring him before a specified date to do the following:

To furnish such drawings, specifications and other particulars necessary to determine whith such building; ways, machinery or plant can be used with safety. To carry out such tests in such manner as may specified; in the order and to inform the inspector of the results thereof.

Safety of Building and Machinery:

Section 40 of factories act contains following provisions regarding safety of building and machinery:

Inspector may order specific measures:-

If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building; or any part of the wave machinery or plant in a factory; is in a dangerous condition to human life or safety; he may serve the occupier or manager or both of the factory; an order in writing specifying the measures which his opinion should be adopted; and requiring them to carried out before a specified date.

Prohibiting use where danger is imminent:-

If it appears to the Inspector that the use of any building or part of a building ; machinery or plant in a factory involves imminent danger to human life or safety; he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory; an order in writing prohibiting its use until it has properly repaired or altered.

Maintenance of Building:

If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building in a factory; in such a state disrepair as likely to lead to conditions detrimental to the health and welfare of the workers. He may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory an order in writing specifying the measures; which in his opinion should taken and requiring the same to carried out; before such date as is specified in the order.

Safety Officers for Pressure Plant:

Section 40B contains following provisions regarding appointment of safety officers in a factory:

Appointment where factory employs 1,000 or more workers: In every factory,

  • wherein one thousand or more worker ordinarily employed, or
  • wherein, in the opinion of the State Government, any manufacturing process or operation carried on; which process or operation involves any risk of bodily injury; poisoning or disease, or any other hazard to health; to the persons employed in the factory, the occupier shall; if so, required by the State Government by notification in the Official Gazette; employ such number of Safety Officers as may be specified in that notification.

Duties, qualifications etc. to prescribed by the Government:

The duties, qualifications and conditions of service of Safety Officer shall such as may prescribed by the State Government.

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