Safety in Engineering Industries and reliability engineering have much in common, but safety is not reliability. If a medical device fails it should fail safely other alternatives will be available to the surgeon of the engine on a single-engine aircraft fails there is no backup. Electrical power grids are designed for both safety and reliability, telephone systems are designed for reliability which becomes a safety issue when emergency.
Safety in Engineering Industries
Safety engineering is an engineering discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety. It is strongly related to industrial engineering/systems engineering and subset system safety engineering. Safety engineering assures that a life-critical system behaves as needed, even when components fail.
“To prevent injuries due to pants of Machine while running.” Every moving part of a prime mover, flywheel, headrace and tailrace of water wheel and turbine, lathe, ‘electric generator, motor, rotary convector, transmission machinery and every dangerous part any other machinery shall be securely constructed, positioned. or fenced by safeguards of substantial construction and constantly maintained and kept in position while.
Statutory Requirements Fencing of Machinery:
Besides its basic need, machine guarding is a statutory requirement since a century. With the growth of industrialization need of machine guarding was noticed and incorporated by the enactment of the first Factories Act in England in 1844 and in India in 1881.The Act was amended in 1891, 1911, 1922, 1923, 1926, 1931,1934, 1948, 1976 and 1986 to gradually include more & more aspects of safety & other provisions. The present Act known as the “Factories Act 1948′ contains Chapter-IV on safety which includes many provisions of machine guarding. The Gujarat Factories Rules 1963 provides further details to supplement these provisions. The whole subject of the Factories Act and Rules separately dealt with in Chapter-2S, but, some relevant portion given below:
Work on or near machinery in motion:
Power means electrical energy or any other form of energy which mechanically transmitted and not generated by human or animal agency. Prime move means any engine, motor or other appliance which generates or otherwise provides power. Transmission machinery means any shaft wheel, drum, pulley system of pulleys coupling, clutch, driving belt or other appliance or device by which the motion of a prime mover transmitted to or received by any machinery or appliance.
Machinery includes prime.
Movers, transmission machinery and all other appliances whereby power generated. transformed, transmitted or applied. Belt includes any driving strap or rope. Maintained mean maintained in an efficient state, in efficient working order and in good repair.
Work on or near machinery:
Requires that any examination, lubrication, adjusting operation, mounting or shipping of belts bile the machinery in motion shall be carried out by a specially trained adult male worker wearing tight fitting clothing supplied by the occupier and his name shall be recorded in the register in. Form no A Such worker shall not handle a belt at a moving pulley unless the belt is not more than 15 em in width, the pulley is a normal drive (no flywheel or balance wheel), the pulley. joint and pulley rim in poor repair, there is reasonable clearance to work, secure foothold/ handhold provided and any udder being used secured fixed or held by a second person. At that time other parts in motion shall e securely fenced to prevent contact. Woman and young person not allowed to do such work.
Employment of young persons on dangerous machines:
On power presses except hydraulic presses milling machines guillotine machines, circular saws and platen printing machines no young person shall work unless he has fully instructed regarding their dangers and precaution to observed and has received sufficient training to work on that machine and under adequate supervision by a person who has a thorough knowledge and experience of that machine.
Striking gear and devices, to cutting off power:
Suitable striding gear or other efficient device to move driving belts to and from fast and loose pulleys; and to prevent the belt from creeping back on to the fast pully shall by used and maintained Driving belts not in use should not rest or ride upon shafting to motion (fur which belt hanger are necessary) Other devices for cutting off power are necessary in every work room. Such devices shall so locked to prevent accidental starting of the machinery.
Self acting machines:
45 cm or more clear space is necessary from the end of maximum traverse of any self-acting machine or material carried thereon.
Casing of new machinery:
Every set screw, bolt, key, gearing shall completely encase or guarded to prevent danger.
Work near Cotton openers:
No Woman or shall work in a room where cotton opener is at work. If the fully partitioned from the delivery end, their employment on feed-end side is permissible delivery and, their employment on fee-end side is permissible.
Effective measures are necessary to ensure not to exceed the safe working peripheral speed of every grinding well revolving vessel cage, basket, flywheels, pulley, disc or similar appliance driven by power. A notice indicating such speed, shaft or spindle speed and the diameter of the pulley in case of grinding wheel shall be affixed near each such machine.
Safe working pressure of any part of the plant or machinery operating at a pressure above atmospheric pressure shall not be exceeded. Rule 61 and 61 A prescribe much details. Form No.11 and 11 A are the testing reports necessary. Such pressure vessel should be of good construction, sound material, strength; the free from patent defect, safe condition and fitted with devices. Such as suitable safety valve, pressure gauge, stop drain cock reducing valve, automatic pressure control thermometer, pyrometer, rupture disc etc.
Further Safety Precautions:
Rule 54 prescribes machine guarding details in respecting textile or artificial fiber machinery; cotton ginning much wood-working machinery and rubber mills. Rule 102 also press details o20 types of dangerous operation (schedules) for safety purpose Many Indian Standards are available. A few are given below:
- List of IS on Safety
- List of IS on Mechanical Engineering.
- Belting for power transmission, Care and practice of abrasive wheels.
- List of IS on Foundry Industry.
- List of IS on Auto mobile Industry.
- Degrees of protection provided by enclosure.
- List of IS on Agricultural Equipment Industry.
- Unfired pressure vessels.
- For rotating electrical machinery.
- Word working machines.