Solid waste management and disposal methods
Solid Waste management is a global environmental issue which concerns about a very significant problem in today’s world. There is a considerable amount of disposal of waste without proper segregation which -has lead to both economical and environmental sufferings. It is better to segregate the waste at the initial stages when it is generated, rather than going for a later option which is inconvenient and expensive, There has to appropriate planning for proper waste management by means of analysis of the waste situation of the area. Solid waste management can bifurcated into mainly two phases. One is the waste management in the area where it is generated and second is the management of waste at dumping grounds.
Solid Waste Management disposal methods:
The ash, along with waste from construction and demolition practices, then dumped into a landfill.
Typical Pattern of Trash Disposal:-
Waste disposal methods In many places now forbids placing raw garbage into landfills, due to the dangers of groundwater contamination from landfill leeching.
Sanitary landfills Site Selection:
- Should be above the water table to minimize interaction with groundwater.
- Preferably located in clay or silt.
- Do not want to place in a rock quarry, as water can leech through the cracks inherent in rocks into a water fracture system.
- Do no want to locate in sand or gravel pits, as these have high leeching.
- Unfortunately, most of Long Island is sand or gravel, and many landfills are located in gravel pits, after they were no longer being used.
- Do not want to locate in a flood plain.
- Most garbage tends to be less dense than water, so if the area of the landfill floods, the garbage will float to the top and wash away downstream.
Volatiles (from Anaerobic processes) include:
- Methane (CH.)
- Ammonia (NH.)
- Hydrogen Sulfide
Solid waste management in Leachates include:
- Heavy Metals (Pb, Cr, Cd)
- Soluble Salts (Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphate)
- Organic Compounds.
Modern Landfill with plastic, clay liner and collection pipes to prevent leachate from entering the groundwater. Va dose Wells situated in the unsaturated zone to monitor gas emissions. Things do not biodegrade in a landfill. Anaerobic processes, the only ones that take place after the landfill sealed, and this makes organic decay very slow, as there no oxygen or moisture to support the decomposition process.
- Reduces the volume of solid waste – only the ash (approximately 90% reduced in volume) needs land filing.
- Metals may recovered from the incineration process, and usually recycled by the incineration plant.
- Converts waste to energy, by using the heat given off by the incinerating waste to fuel a turbine, which used to generate electricity.
- May result in air pollution (although recent regulations severely restrict the amount of pollution from incineration).
- Ash may be a hazardous waste (this is not true in most cases, although there are exceptions).