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The chemical Hazards in industries

What are the chemical hazards in industries?

chemical hazards

A. Characteristics of chemical hazards materials

Definitions of various terms related to chemical hazards in industries


Ability of a chemical to cause internal or external injury on human body/system.

Mode of Entrance:

Chemicals can go to human body through inhalation (Nose) ingestion (mouth) and skin ‘absorption.

Acute Effect:

Immediate effect (Ammonia inhalation, acid burn, etc.)

Chronic Effect:

Effect after Prolonged exposure (Chromium uicers).

Local Effect:

Effect confined to the affected part (Chemical Bums).

chemical burns

Systemic Effect:

Effect on one complete or more than one systems (CO2 inhalation, H2S inhalation, Denzena and Aniline Poisoning, Methanol poisoning, etc.

TLV (Threshold Limit Value):

This is a maximum acceptable or allowable concentration of a chemical in air in which persons can work for eight hours without any harmful effect.


In a broader sense, substances with flash points less than 800F ate called combustible.

Flash Point:

It is that minimum temperature ‘at which the substance gives out vapour just sufficient to ignite with external source of ignition, in air.

Ignition Point:

It is that temperature which when reached the, substance. starts burning in air without external source of ignition.

Boiling Point:

This is the temperature at which liquid starts boiling and coming rapidly in vapor form. Boiling point is an important indication of volatility. Volatiles have low boiling points.

Vapour Density:

V.D. = Molecular Weight or a chemical

B. Risk from chemicals

  • Injuries to health because of their toxic properties. (Health Hazards).
  • Fire Explosion causing (Fire Hazards).
  • Present typical problem in process, handling.
  • The chemical Hazards storage because of their properties such as corrosion, temperature/pressure sensitiveness high vapor pressure, peculiar shape, etc.

Properties of chemicals to be given priority attention from safety point of view-


A.ToxicityMode of entrance to body, injurious affect, exposure limits.
B.FlammabilityFlash point, Ignition point, Explosive limits
C.Vapour PressureStorage Safety systems to control pressure risk.
D.CorrosivelyStorage, personal safety, Plant design.
E.IncompatibilityStorage, Transferring, Loading
F.Water SolubilityContrail/ dilution or chemical leak, First Aid.
G.Vapour DensityCloud behaviour, Ventilation type
H.Boiling PointVolatility Judgement.

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