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The Occupation Diseases in industries

What are the Occupation Diseases in industries?

To gain knowledge regarding Occupation related common diseases arise at work site, Diseases due to physical hazards, Chemical hazards, biological etc. Diseases arising from dust and its control measures. After studying this chapter student should have sufficient knowledge regarding Occupation related common diseases arise at work site.The Occupation Diseases in industries

Diseases due to physical hazards, Chemical hazards, biological etc. Diseases arising from dust and its control measures. An occupational disease is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity. It is an aspect of occupational safety and health.

An occupational disease is typically identified when it is shown that it is more prevalent in a given body of workers than in the general population, or in other worker populations. Occupational hazards that are of a traumatic nature (such as falls by roofers) are not considered occupational diseases. Under the law of workers’ compensation in many jurisdiction is a presumption that specific disease are caused by the worker being in environment and the burden is on the employer or insurer to show that the disease came about from another cause.

Lung diseases

Main article: Occupational Lung disease Occupational Diseases

Occupational lung diseases include asbestosis among asbestos miners and those who work with friable asbestos insulation, as well as black lung (coal worker’s pneumoconiosis) among coal miners, and byssinosis is among workers in parts of the cotton textile industry.

Occupational asthma has a vast number of occupations at risk.

Bad indoor air quality may predispose for diseases in the lungs as well as in other parts of the body.

Skin diseases

Occupational skin diseases and conditions are generally caused by chemicals and having wet hands for long periods while at work. Eczema is by far the most common, but urticaria, sunburn and skin cancer are also of concern.

High-risk occupations include:

  • Hairdressing
  • Catering
  • Healthcare
  • Printing
  • Metal machining
  • Motor vehicle repair
  • Construction
  • Software Development

Other diseases of concern

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome among persons who work in the poultry industry and information technology.
  • Lead poisoning affecting workers in many industries that processed or employed lead or lead compounds.

 Occupation Diseases/Disorders due to physical agents


When working in a hot environment, humans maintain normal body temperature by perspiring and by increasing the blood flow to the surface of the body. The large amounts of water and salt lost in perspiration then need to be replaced. In the past, miners who perspired profusely and drank water to relieve their thirst experienced intense muscular pain-a condition known as miner’s cramps-as a result of restoring their water but not their salt balance, When salt in the requisite amount was added to their drinks, workers no longer developed miner’s cramps.

Atmospheric pressures

Decompression sickness (caisson disease) can result from exposure to high or low atmospheric pressure. Under increased atmospheric pressure (such as that experienced by deep-sea divers or tunnel workers), fat-soluble nitrogen gas dissolves in the body fluids and tissues. During decompression the gas comes out of solution and, if decompression is rapid, forms bubbles in the tissues. These bubbles cause pains in the limbs (known as the bends), breathlessness, angina, headache, dizziness, collapse, coma, and in some cases death.

Noisenoise diseases

Exposure to excessive noise can be unpleasant and can impair working efficiency Temporary or permanent hearing loss may also occur, depending on the loudness or intensity of the noise, its pitch or frequency, the length and pattern of exposure, and the vulnerability of the individual. Prolonged exposure to sound energy of intensity above 80 to 90 decibels is likely to result in noise-induced hearing loss, developing first for high frequencies and progressing downward. The condition can be prevented by enclosing noisy machinery and by providing effective ear protection. Routine audiometry gives an indication of the effectiveness of preventive measures adopted to reduce noise.


Whole-body vibration is experienced in surface and air transport, with motion sickness its most familiar effect. A more serious disorder, known as Raynaud’s syndrome or vibration white finger (WF), can result from the extensive use of vibratory hand tools, especially in cold weather. The condition is seen most frequently among workers who handle chain saws, grinders, pneumatic drills, hammers, and chisels. Forestry workers in cold climates are particularly at risk. Initial signs of VWF are tingling and numbness of the fingers, followed by intermittent blanching; redness and pain B occur in the recovery stage.

Other Mechanical Stresses

Muscle cramps often afflict workers engaged in heavy manual labour as well as typists, pianists, and others who frequently use rapid, repetitive/movements of the hand or forearm. Tenosynovitis, a condition in which the sheath enclosing a tendon to the wrist or to one of the fingers becomes inflamed, causing pain and temporary disability, can also result from prolonged repetitive movement. When the movement involves the rotation of the forearm, the extensor tendon attached to the point of the elbow becomes inflamed, a condition commonly known as tennis elbow.

Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation damages or destroys body tissues by breaking down the molecules Safety Management in the tissues into positively or negatively charged particles called ions. Radiation that is capable of causing ionization may be electromagnetic (X-rays and gamma rays) or particulate (radiation of electrons, protons, neutrons, alpha particles, and other subatomic particles) and has many uses in industry, medicine, and scientific research.

Ionizing radiation injury is in general dose-dependent. Whole-body exposure to doses in excess of 1,000 raids results in acute radiation syndrome and is usually fatal. Doses in excess of 3,000 rads produce cerebral damage.

Non ionizing radiation

Non-ionizing forms of radiation include electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency, infra-red, visible light, and ultraviolet ranges. Exposure to radiation in the radio frequency range occurs in the telecommunications industry and in the e of microwaves. Microwaves produce localized heating of tissues that may be intense and dangerous. Various other disorders, mainly of a subjective nature, have reported in workers exposed to this frequency range. Infra-red radiation can felt as heat and commonly used in industry in drying or baking processes. Prolonged exposure to the radiation can result in severe damage to the skin and eyes.

 Occupation Diseases/Disorders due to infectious agents

A large number of infectious diseases transmitted to humans by animals. Many such diseases have largely eliminated, but some still pose hazards. Anthrax, for example, can acquired by workers handling the unsterilized hair, hide, and bone of infected animals; and slaughter house workers, farmers, veterinarians, and others in contact with infected animals, milk, and milk products still frequently contract brucellosis. Contact with contaminated water is another common method of acquiring infectious diseases. Many workers are infected by organisms that thrive in the puddles or stagnant water found in sewers, canals, paddies etc.

 Occupation Diseases/Disorders due to psychological factors

Psychological factors are important determinants of worker health, well-being, and productivity. Studies have shown the benefits to workers who feel satisfied and stimulated by their jobs, who maintain good relationships with their employers or supervisors and with Other employees, and who do not feel overworked. Such workers have lower rates of absenteeism and job turnover and higher rates of output than average. The two Psychological hazards commonly encountered at work are boredom and mental stress.

 Occupation Diseases/Disorders due to chemical agents

Hazardous chemicals can act directly on the skin, resulting in local irritation or an allergic reaction, or they may be absorbed through the skin, ingested, or inhaled. In the workplace ingestion of toxic chemicals is usually accidental and most commonly results rom handling contaminated food, drink, or cigarettes. Substances that occur as gases vapors, aerosols, and dusts the most difficult to control, and most hazardous chemicals therefore absorbed through the respiratory tract. If inhaled, airborne contaminants act as irritants to the respiratory tract or as systemic poisons.

Gases may act as local irritants to inflame mucous surfaces. Common examples include Sulphur dioxide chlorine, and fluorine, which have pungent odors and can severely irritate the eyes and the respiratory tract. Some gases, such as nitrogen oxides and phosgene, are much more insidious. Victims may be unaware of the danger of exposure because the immediate effects of these gases may be mild and overlooked. Several hours after exposure, however breathlessness and fatal cardio respiratory failure due to pulmonary edema (collection of fluid in the lungs) may develop.

Gases that interfere with oxygen supply to the tissues are known.


Metals and their compounds among the poisons most commonly encountered in the home and workplace. Even metals essential for life can be toxic if they are present in excessive amounts. Iron, for example, an essential element and sometimes given therapeutically; if taken in overdose, however, it can be lethal. Mercury poisoning, one of the classic occupational diseases, is a representative example of metal poisoning. Exposure to mercury can occur in many situations, including the manufacture of thermometers, explosives, fungicides, drugs, paints, batteries, and various electrical products. The disorders it can cause vary depending on the type.

 Occupation Diseases due to Organic compounds

The organic compounds that pose the greatest occupational hazards various aromatic, aliphatic, and halogenated hydrocarbons and the organophosphates, carbamates, organochlorine compounds, and bipyridylium compounds used as pesticides. Pesticides used the world over; and, even though precautionary measures (such a5 using protective clothing and respirators; monitoring contamination of equipment and clothing, keeping workers out of recently sprayed areas; and requiring workers to wash thoroughly after exposure) can be instituted; poisoning not infrequently occurs in agricultural communities. The organophosphates and the generally less toxic carbamates exert their effects by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme that prevents stimulation from.


The inhalation of a variety of dusts is responsible for a number of lung a respiratory disorders. Whose symptoms and severity depend on the composition and size of the dust particle, the amount of dust inhaled, and the length of exposure. The diseases known as the pneumonias result when certain inhaled mineral dusts deposited in the lungs. Where they cause a chronic fibrotic reaction that leads to decreasing cape for exercise and increasing breathlessness, cough, and respiratory difficulty. No specific treatment known, but as with all respiratory disorders patients urged to quit smoking which aggravates.

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