What are the Occupational Hazardous in workplace in India?
- Legislation on occupational health and safety has existed in India for several decades. The principal health and safety laws based on the British Factories Act. The Factories Act, 1948 amended in 1954, 1990, 1976 and 1987. Following the Bhopal gas disaster, a special chapter on occupational health and safety to safeguard workers employed in hazardous industries was added. The amendments demanded a shift from dealing with disaster or disease to prevention of its occurrence.
- Workplace hazards present risks to the health and safety of people in an organization. These includes Hazards due to chemicals, biological agents, physical factors, adverse ergonomic conditions, allergens, a complex network of safety risks and a broad range of psychosocial risk factors.
- Personal protective equipment can help protect against many hazards. Physical hazards affect many people in the workplace.
- Occupational hearing loss is the most common work-related injury especially in construction, extraction, transportation, healthcare, and building cleaning and maintenance. Biological hazards include infectious micro organisms such as viruses and toxins produced by those organisms such as anthrax.
- Dangerous chemicals can pose a chemical hazard in the workplace hazards. There is some evidence that certain chemicals are harmful at lower levels when mixed with one or more other chemicals. This may be particularly important in causing cancer.
- Psychosocial hazards include risks to the mental and emotional well-being of workers, such as feelings of job insecurity, long work hours, and poor work-life balance.
- Specific occupational safety and health risk factors vary depending on the specific sector and industry. For example, Construction workers might be at risk of falls.
What are the need for Occupational Health& safety in industries?
Over one million work-related deaths occur annually according to ILO estimates and hundreds of millions of workers suffer from workplace accidents and occupational exposure to hazardous substances worldwide. In a speech to the introductory session of the Congress, Dr. Jukka Takala, Chief of the ILO‘s Health and Safety programmed. Pointed out that the workplace hecatomb of 1.1 million deaths exceeds the average annual deaths from road accidents (999,000), war (502,000), violence (563,000) and HIVIAIDS (312,000) Also, according to ILO, some 600,000 lives would be saved every year if available safety practices and appropriate information were used:
- Every year, 250 million accidents occur causing absence from work, the equivalent of 685,000 accidents every day, 475 every minute, 8 every second;
- Working children suffer 12 million occupational accidents and an estimated 12,000 of them are fatal;
- 3,000 people killed by work every day, 2 every minute;
- Asbestos alone kills more than 100,000 workers every year.