Types of Solid wastes:
Types of Solid wastes can be classified into different types depending on their source:
- Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste,
- Industrial waste as hazardous waste,
- Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.
Municipal solid wastes:
Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tones of solid waste; in 1997 it was about 48 million tones More than 25% of the municipal solid waste is hot collected at all; 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity to transport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose of the waste, The existing land fills are neither well equipped nor well managed and are not lined properly to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater.
Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans, aluminum foils, plastics, and other such non-biodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, ‘some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success for example, today one will not see a single piece of plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban on plastics in 1998.
Other states should follow the example of this region and ban the use of items that cause harm to the environment. One positive note is that in many large cities, shops have begun packing items in reusable or biodegradable bags. Certain biodegradable items can also composted and reused. In fact proper handling of the biodegradable waste will considerably lessen the burden of solid waste that each city has to tackle. Different categories of waste generated, each take their own time to degenerate.
It is one of the Types of Solid Wastes. Industrial and hospital waste considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substances. Certain types of household waste are also hazardous. Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things e.g. gases. India generates around 7 million tonnes of hazardous wastes every year, most of which concentrated in four states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. Household wastes that can categorized as hazardous waste include old batteries, shoe polish, paint tins, old medicines, and medicine bottles. Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals used in hospitals considered hazardous.
These chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols, which used as disinfectants, and mercury; which used in thermometers or equipment that measure blood pressure. Most hospitals in India do not have proper disposal facilities for these hazardous wastes. In the industrial sector, the major- generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries. Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.
Hospital waste generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities. In these fields or in the production or testing of biological. It may include wastes like sharps, solid waste, disposables, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. These are in the form” of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It has roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated; in a hospital at least 1 kg would infected.
Surveys carried out by various agencies show that the health care establishments; in India are not giving due attention to their waste management. After the notification of the Bio-medical Waste (Handling and Management) Rules, 1998; these establishments are slowly streamlining the process of waste segregation, collection, treatment, and disposal. Many of the larger hospitals have either installed the treatment facilities or are in the process of doing so.